The rise in the stock market over the past several years, teamed with the passage of the SECURE Act two years ago—as well as the scheduled 50% reduction in the size of the federal estate tax exemption four years from now—has resulted in a renewed interest in estate planning for IRA and 401(k) accounts owned by married couples.
A bypass trust removes a designated portion of an IRA or 401(k) proceeds from the surviving spouse's taxable estate, while also achieving several tax benefits, according to a recent article titled “New Purposes for ‘Bypass' Trusts in Estate Planning” from Financial Advisor.
Portability became law in 2013, when Congress permanently passed the portability election for assets passing outright to the surviving spouse when the first spouse dies. This allows the survivor to benefit from the unused federal estate tax exemption of the deceased spouse, thereby claiming two estate tax exemptions. Why would a couple need a bypass trust in their estate plan?
- The portability election does not remove appreciation in the value of the ported assets from the surviving spouse's taxable estate. A bypass trust removes all appreciation.
- The portability election does not apply if the surviving spouse remarries, and the new spouse predeceases the surviving spouse. Remarriage does not impact a bypass trust.
- The portability election does not apply to federal generation skipping transfer taxes. The amount could be subject to a federal transfer tax in the heir's estates, including any appreciation in value.
- If the decedent had debts or liability issues, ported assets do not have the protection against claims and lawsuits offered by a bypass trust.
- The first spouse to die loses the ability to determine where the ported assets go after the death of the surviving spouse. This is particularly important when there are children from multiple marriages and parents want to ensure their children receive an inheritance.
This strategy should be reviewed in light of the SECURE Act 10-year maximum payout rule, since the outright payment of IRA and 401(k) plan proceeds to a surviving spouse is entitled to spousal rollover treatment and generally a greater income tax deferral.
Bypass trusts are also subject to the highest federal income tax rate at levels of gross income of as low as $13,550, and they do not qualify for income tax basis step-up at the death of the surviving spouse.
However, the use of IRC Section 678 in creating the bypass trust can eliminate the high trust income tax rates and the minimum exemption, also under Section 678, so the trust is not taxed the way a surviving spouse would be. There is also the potential to include a conditional general testamentary power of appointment in the trust, which can sometimes result in income tax basis step-up for all or a portion of the appreciated assets in the trust upon the death of the surviving spouse.
Every estate planning situation is unique, and these decisions should only be made after consideration of the size of the IRA or 401(k) plan, the tax situation of the surviving spouse and the tax situation of the heirs. An experienced estate planning attorney is needed to review each situation to determine whether or not a bypass trust is the best option for the couple and the family.
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Reference: Financial Advisor (Feb. 1, 2022) “New Purposes for ‘Bypass' Trusts in Estate Planning”